Male infertility can be caused by various disorders due to which it is impossible to fertilize an egg cell. Decline in fertility is caused by a number of factors.
Male infertility causes
- anatomical abnormalities of male genitals (for example, hypospadias or spermaduct obstruction)
- sexual and ejaculation dysfunctions (impotence, retrograde ejaculation)
- endocrine hypotalamo-hypophysis disorders causing spermatogenesis dysfunction (hyperprolactinaemia, hypogonadotropic hyponadism and etc.)
- inflammatory and infectious diseases
- spermatogenesis dysfunction due to genetic disorders
- immunologic disorders (autoimmune antibodies to spermatozoa)
- spermatogenesis dysfunction due to external causes (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, certain medicines, alcohol and etc.)
Therefore, male infertility can be caused by situations in which:
- spermatozoa are not produced
- spermatozoa do not mature
Male infertility diagnosing
First of all, an urologist-andrologist recommends a semen analysis which detects certain disorders in spermatogenesis process. The main properties of sperm which should be taken into consideration in itemizing a sperm analysis are ejaculate volume, sperm count, a percentage of motile spermatozoa and that of normal morphological forms.
The urologist-andrologist also prescribes a urine analysis, microexamination of prostate gland secretion, analysis for sexually transmitted infections as well as test for prolactin, testosterone, FSH and LH. Moreover, if there are certain indications, an inoculation of medium of prostate gland secretion or sperm may be performed to diagnose both inflammatory and infectious diseases. A thorough diagnosing of male infertility helps to elaborate an effective treatment course and restore fertility.
Methods of male infertility treatment
- Conservative therapy
The purpose of this therapy is to restore male reproductive function. As a rule, it is applied, if there are inflammatory or infectious processes or endocrine disorders.
Surgical intervention is recommended for such pathologies as varicocele (varix dilatation of spermatic cord), cryptorchidism (irregular descent of one or two testis in scrotum), obstructive azoospermia (in this case the absence of spermatozoa in ejaculate is caused by obstructions in spermaducts).
- Treatment with ART
ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) is applied to treat serious male infertility forms. This technique makes it possible to perform an in vitro fertilization of an egg cell, even if mature spermatozoa are absolutely absent from ejaculate.