Female fertility decline can be caused by various factors. For this reason diagnosing of fertility reduction is very important. The application of different techniques and methods in combination with the professional competence of a specialist contributes to elaborate a proper treatment course as well as to solve the problem in the most efficient way. For example, we often deal with female complex infertility which may have a number of causes. Therefore, if not all the pathologies are diagnosed, the treatment will not result in the desired effect.
In medicine there is a female infertility classification based on various factors.
1. Primary infertility
- Primary infertility (a woman has never been pregnant)
- Secondary infertility (a woman has been pregnant despite of the fact whether she carried it to the term or not )
During the first visit a doctor should discuss with the patient her medical background, i.e. collect exact information on her gynecological diseases, operations on pelvic organs, menstrual cycle disorder, previous pregnancy or a failure to achieve it, which helps to select diagnostic methods for each separate case. The specialist may require information both on the reproductive health of the patient and on her family history: disorders of reproductive and endocrine systems diagnosed to her close relatives.
2. Absolute and relative infertlity
- Absolute infertility is a situation in which a pregnancy can’t be achieved due to serious disorders (for example, the absence of uterus or ovaries)
- Relative infertility stands for a situation in which fertility can be restored after a treatment course.
3. Female infertility causes
- endocrine infertility;
- endometriosis ;
- tuboperitoneal infertility;
- pathological modifications in the uterine tract;
- immunologic infertility;
- phsychological infertility;
- idiopatic infertility.
Furthermore, sometimes infertility is caused by a combination of factors. Both the spouses should undergo an examination as infertility may be also caused by male infertility factor or by a complex factor, when decline in reproductive function is diagnosed both to the man and to the woman.
4. Treatment methods
The purpose of female infertility treatment is to restore fertility. It is performed with the help of various methods the selection of which depends on a result of an integrated examination.
hormonal balance improvement with the help of hormonal medicines
Hormonal therapy is used to restore female fertility in the following cases: thyroid diseases, hyperandrogenism (a high level of male hormones), anovular menstrual cycle (egg cell does not mature and can’t be fertilized).
- anti-inflammatory medicines
If decline in fertility function is caused by an inflammatory process in pelvic organs, anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed. As a rule, this method is combined with other methods of fertility restoration.
Surgical intervention techniques such as hysteroscopy and laparoscopy are used when there are adhesions in pelvic organs, hysteromyoma, ovarian cycts, endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia and etc.
If there are certain indications or conservative therapy and surgical methods result in no positive effect, the doctor can recommend assisted reproduction technologies such as:
- artificial insemination;
- IVF (extracorporeal fertilization) as well as IVF with donated egg cells;
- surrogacy as well as surrogacy with donated egg cells.