Semen analysis is an analysis of the ejaculate with the definition of its physical characteristics and microscopy, which allows to identify various disorders in the spermatogenesis process.
In our clinic you can make Kruger’s semen analysis. To do this, you must inform the clinic about this before the study. The cost of semen analysis will not change.
To take semen analysis you need to follow certain rules. Before taking a test, it is necessary to refrain from sexual intercourse, taking alcoholic beverages, heavy sleeping medicines and sedatives, visiting a bathhouse and sauna for two - three days.
The analysis of the obtained biomaterial should be carried out as soon as possible after it is received: if transportation of a sperm sample is required, it should be carried out at the body temperature. It takes 30-40 minutes to deliver a container with ejaculate to the laboratory. That is why in the reproduction clinic, where the analysis is carried out immediately and transportation is excluded, the semen analysis results are the most accurate.
The main indicators of semen analysis – WHO standards
The study of the characteristics of ejaculate let the doctor to diagnose various spermatogenesis disorders that affect the fertilizing ability of sperm. During the interpretation of the semen analysis results, certain standarts are taken into account.Total amount of ejaculate.
- Total amount of ejaculate
The volume of semen obtained as a result of one ejaculation must be at least 1.5 ml. Decrease in sperm volume - oligospermia (the term "hypospermia" is also used), occurs when there is hormonal imbalance, hereditary diseases, prostatitis, stress, overwork. An increase in the amount over 8-10 ml is called polyspermia and also indicates a disorder in the spermatogenesis process and requires a second study after 2 months (approximately this period is required for the maturation of new spermatozoa). If ejaculate is completely absent, aspermia is determined.
- The total sperm count in the ejaculate
Normally, the total count of germ cells should be over 39 million. In case of decrease of their number, oligozoospermia is diagnosed.
- Concentration of sperm
Normally, the number of sperm in 1 ml of ejaculate should be more than 15 million. If a decrease in the number of spermatozoa is observed, oligozoospermia is diagnosed, in the case of a complete absence of mature forms in the seminal fluid with the presence of immature cells of spermatogenesis, azoospermia is diagnosed.
- Mobility of germ cells
All spermatozoa present in the ejaculate can be divided into 4 categories:
A. Sperm with progressive motility. This group includes sperm, which move in a straight line at a speed of at least 25 μm per second.
B. Progressive poorly mobile. Spermatozoa of this group also move forward, but at a lower speed (up to 25 μm/sec)
C. Non-progressive motility. The cells of this group make rotational or oscillatory movements that do not allow reaching the egg in order to fertilize it.
According to the standards of the World Health Organization, the ejaculate must contain at least 25% of sperm of category "A" or at least 50% of spermatozoa combined from groups "A" and "B". In case of these conditions are not obsereved, asthenozoospermia is diagnosed. If there are live, but completely immobile spermatozoa in the semen, akinospermia is determined.
- Sperm morphology
This indicator allows to determine the proportion of sex cells with a normal structure in the ejaculate. Semen may contain forms with an abnormal structure of the head, neck, middle part, or tail. If more than half of the spermatozoa have certain disorders, teratozoospermia is diagnosed.
- Content in the ejaculate of living germ cells
In the event that the ejaculate sample contains less than 50% of living sperm, necrospermia is diagnosed.
- Sperm agglutination
If forms that glued together are found in the semen, agglutination is determined (not to be confused with aggregation).
- Leukocytes in the ejaculate
Normally, the seminal fluid contains a certain amount of white blood cells, but an increase of their concentration indicates an inflammatory process in the genitals and is called leukospermia.
- Red blood cells in ejaculate
A normal semen sample does not contain red blood cells. If they are found, we are talking about hemospermia.
- Pus in the ejaculate
If pus is present in the ejaculate, the semen takes on a characteristic yellowish-green color and often has an unpleasant odor. In this case, pyospermia is diagnosed.
- Bacteria in the ejaculate
Bacteriospermia is diagnosed when a semen sample contains more than 103 CFU of bacteria.
What should I do if semen analysis result is bad?
Semen analysis should be done by a specialist. At Nova Clinic, after receiving the test results, the doctor may recommend additional examinations that will help to identify the reasons of the fertility decrease more accurately. If the result is bad, do not panic. The point is that the result of the analysis is influenced by a lot of factors: stress, taking medications, hypothermia or overheating in the genital area, inflammatory processes. That is why about two months after (this is how much time it takes on average to produce new germ cells) it is reasonable to take the test again.
Where to take a semen analysis in Moscow?
You can take a semen analysis in Moscow in many medical centers, but it is better to go to good laboratories. Quite often, patients prefer to take a semen analysis at IVF clinic, where a couple takes an examination due to the diagnostics of infertility.