What is spermogram?
Spermogram is a semen analysis which evaluates morphological characteristics of a man’s semen and the sperm contained in it. It is done to help diagnose various disfunctions in the process of spermatogenesis. There are certain rules of sperm sampling. It is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse, alcohol drinks, drastic soporific and sedative drugs, bath and sauna in the course of two-three days.
The semen should be analyzed immediately after the sample is given. If it is necessary to transport a sperm sample, the ambient temperature should be equal to body temperature. The container with it should be delivered to the laboratory in 30-40 minutes.
Main sperm characteristics. Norms of WHO.
Analysis of sperm characteristics helps diagnose various spermatogenesis disfunctions which influence fertility. When analyzing a spermogram, the following parameters should be taken into consideration.
- Total sperm volume
- Total spermatozoa count in ejaculate
The total spermatozoa count equal to 39 mln. is considered to be the norm. The lower count indicates to oligozzospermia.
- Spermatozoa count in 1 ml of ejaculate
The norm is 15 mln. of spermatozoa in 1 ml of ejaculate. If spermatozoa count is lower, it is oligozoospermia. In case of total absence of mature spermatozoa in semen liquid and presence of immature ones, azoospermia is diagnosed.
- Spermotazoa motility
All the spermatozoa in ejaculate can be of the following motility types:
- Grade A. Progressive motility. Sperm motility along the straight line is 25 mcm per second.
- Grade B. Non-linear motility. Spermatozoa of this type move along the straight line, but their velocity is lower than 25 mcm per second.
- Grade C. Non-progressive motility. Spermatozoa of this type move in a curve o crooked motion, which impedes them to reach an egg cell and fertilize it.
- Grade D. Immotile.
According to the norms of the World Health Organization ejaculate must contain no less than 25% of spermatozoa of Grade «А» or no less than 50% of spermatozoa of Grades «А» and «В» in total.
Asthenozoospermia is diagnosed, if one of the terms mentioned above is not observed.
If there are alive but totally immotile spermatozoa, akinospermia is diagnosed.
- Morphological characteristics
This criteria helps to determine the percentage of spermotazoa with normal morphological characteristics. Semen liquid may contain spermatozoa with abnormal head, neck, body and tail. If some of these abnormalities are found in more than half of the spermatozoa, it indicates to teratozoospermia.
- Alive spermotazoa count in ejaculate
If an ejaculate sample contains less than 50% of alive spermatozoa, this is a case of necrospermia.
- Spermatozoa agglutination
If agglutinated spermatozoa are found in a sperm sample, it is agglutination (do not confuse with aggregation).
- White blood cells in ejaculate
As a rule, semen liquid contains a number of white blood cells. But their high count indicates to inflammatory process in the genitals. It is called leukospermia.
- Red blood cells in ejaculate
Usually, semen liquid does not contain red blood cells. If they are found in it, this is a case of hemospermia.
- Pus in ejaculate
If pus is found in ejaculate, sperm is tinted with yellow-greenish color and unpleasant-smelling. In this case we can diagnose piospermia.
If spermogram does not correspond to the norm
Spermogram must be done by a specialist. At Nova Clinic, when sperm analysis isdone, you may be recommended to undergo supplementary examinations in order to precise your infertility causes. If your spermogram does not correspond to the norm, you shouldn’t be alarmed. Spermatogenesis is influenced by a number of factors: stress, medicines, overexposure of the genitals to cold or to heat, inflammatory process. That is why it is recommended to have another sperm analysis done in two months (the period in which new gametes mature).
You can have a sperm analysis done at any medical center of Moscow. Therefore, it is recommended to turn to reliable clinics and laboratories. It is a regular practice that a couple, who undergoes an examination for infertility causes at an IVF clinic, has a sperm analysis done there as well.
To see the cost of spermogram at our clinic go to the «Price-list».